History of Seljuk Empire

History of Seljuk Empire

The Seljuk State is considered to be a state that has an important place in history and has a great influence in the Islamic world. The Seljuk State is a Turkish state that came from Central Asia in the early 11th century and showed activity in the Islamic world. In this article, we will give general information about the history, culture, art, architecture and state structure of the Seljuk State.


The origins of the Seljuk State date back to the Turkish tribes living in Central Asia in the 9th century. Oghuz, one of these tribes, turned towards the Islamic world in the 11th century and started to fight against the Ghazni Empire in the Khorasan region of Iran. At this time, Selcuk Bey drew attention as one of the prominent leaders of the Oghuz. Selcuk Bey's son Tugrul Bey defeated the Ghaznavid Empire in 1037 and became a great power in the Islamic world. Tugrul Bey was rewarded with the title of "sultan" by the Abbasid Caliphate and thus the foundations of the Seljuk State were laid.

The most brilliant period of the Seljuk State is considered to be the period of Melikşah. Melikşah defeated the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Malazgirt in 1071 and conquered Anatolia. The Seljuk State established a great empire in Anatolia and spread Islam here and kept many cultures together. Alparslan, I. Kılıçarslan and II. Kılıçarslan are among the most important sultans of the Seljuk State. The Seljuk Empire collapsed in the early 13th century as a result of the invasion of the Mongol Empire.


The Seljuk State is considered a state under the influence of Islamic culture. Islamic culture was effective in many areas of the Seljuk State such as art, literature, architecture and philosophy. The culture of the Seljuk State was formed by the combination of the cultures of Anatolia and Iran. In this way, Seljuk culture has a rich and diverse structure.


The Seljuk State has also left a great impact in the field of art. Seljuk art is a part of Islamic art and religious motifs were mainly used. Seljuk art includes elements such as geometric patterns, floral motifs and animal figures. The materials used include wood, stone, marble, tile, glass and metal.

The art of the Seljuk State is most evident in the field of architecture. Seljuk architecture bears the characteristics of Islamic architecture and is known for features such as stonework, domes and arches. Among the most famous architectural monuments of the Seljuk Empire are the Blue Mosque in Istanbul, the Mevlana Tomb in Konya, the Double Minaret Madrasa in Erzurum and the Friday Mosque in Isfahan.


The literature of the Seljuk Empire is also part of Islamic literature. Seljuk literature consists of poetry and prose works. Poetry is the most important literary genre of the Seljuk Empire and usually deals with religious, moral and mystical subjects. Among the most famous poets of Seljuk literature are Hodja Dehhânî, Ahmed-i Dai and Mevlana Celaleddin-i Rumi.


The philosophy of the Seljuk Empire developed in parallel with Islamic philosophy. Ibn-i Sina and Farabi are among the most important philosophers of the Seljuk Empire. Ibn-i Sina had a great impact on the field of medicine with his work "El-Kanun fi't-Tıbb". Farabi, on the other hand, has an important place in the history of Islamic philosophy with his work "Medyun-i Felsefe".

State Structure:

The administrative structure of the Seljuk State was functioning with the sultanate system. The Sultan was the highest ruler of the state and ruled in accordance with the powers granted to him. The sultans of the Seljuk State were influential in many areas and had the authority to decide on political, social, cultural and religious issues. The sultans had a large army and this army played an important role in the security of the state.

As a result, the Seljuk State had a great impact on the Islamic world and developed in many fields. It has made important contributions in areas such as art, literature, philosophy and administrative structure. Especially in the field of architecture, the works left by the Seljuk State are still interesting and important today. While Seljuk architecture bears and develops the characteristics of Islamic architecture, Seljuk literature stands out with its mystical poems. Elements such as the sultanate system as a state structure and the establishment of a large army for the security of the state also played an important role in the success of the Seljuk State.

However, the Seljuk State lost its power over time and collapsed as a result of the Mongol invasion. During this period, principalities emerged in Anatolia and the foundations of the Ottoman Empire were laid. With the collapse of the Seljuk State, a new era began in the Islamic world.

 Today, the legacy of the Seljuk Empire is part of the cultural and historical richness of Turkey. The artefacts of the Seljuk Empire are also of great interest to tourists in Turkey and are recognised worldwide. In addition, the literary heritage of the Seljuk Empire played an important role in the development of Turkish literature, and today the leading poets and writers of Turkish literature are inspired by Seljuk literature.

In conclusion, the Seljuk Empire was an important part of the Islamic world and left a rich cultural, artistic and historical legacy. The collapse of the Seljuk Empire led to the rise of the Ottoman Empire and played an important role in the historical and cultural development of Turkey.

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